P e r m a c u l t u r e R e s o u r c e B o o k M o d u l e 11 . Aq u a c u l t u r e
Modul e N o 1 1 .
N o t e s . . .
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Aquaculture is the name of any type of water or wetland where water animals and plants
are grown. Communities are very reliant on the sea and its resources. Fishing as a source of
income and lifestyle is a part of our peoples tradition and culture. Fish are an important part of
our diet and a good source of income.
But not only on ocean coasts is aquaculture important, in many areas inland aquaculture
provides fish and other products, such as prawns, catfish, eels, taro, watercress and much
more, as food and as an income. Breeding fish is only one part of a healthy aquaculture system.
There are many other factors which keep the system healthy and productive. Water plants,
bacteria, trees and other animals all play important roles in aquaculture systems.
Why is Aquaculture Important?
Aquaculture is very important because it provides so many benefits, such as:
• Fish and other water animals are very good source of protein and nutrition.
Even a small pond can provide enough fish to greatly improve the diets and
health of a whole family, especially children. The meat can be eaten fresh
as it is needed so that it does not go rotten and have to be wasted. Fish
can also be sold or dried for later use
• Aquaculture systems will produce more meat for the same area of land than
any other animal. This is the most efficient way to produce high quality meat
with more protein content
• Aquaculture systems will increase family and community income
• After the fish are harvested, the pond can be cleaned and the soil and
manure at the pond bottom can be used as fertilizer for plants, this
fertilizer is high quality, rich in nitrogen and very strong, so it should
be mixed with water before use. Pond water is also a good source of
fertilizer, but it is not very strong. If the ponds are located close to
gardens, it will reduce the task of carrying water for watering the garden
• Aquaculture systems are a good way to turn animal manure and waste
into fish food and fertilizer for water plants
• Aquaculture systems can be made on land which has low productivity or
cannot be used for farming, such as swamps or wetlands
• Rice, chicken, pig and duck production can all be combined with aquaculture
to increase productivity in all systems which are combined. These systems can also
be integrated with terracing, swales and water catchments
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• Aquaculture systems assist water flow and drainage
during the wet season. During the dry season, these
systems provide water storage which can be used
for animal and crop needs
• Aquaculture systems change and modify
climate, they make the temperature around
cooler and more comfortable. This is very
beneficial for trees and areas surrounding the
• Aquaculture systems will attract birds, frogs,
useful insects and many other pest predators.
This will increase crop pollination, and reduce pest
problems in areas around the aquaculture system
This module explains how to make and manage an aquaculture
system, how to use the extra benefits and how to integrate aquaculture with other
animal and crop production systems.
Step by Step Aquaculture Systems
An aquaculture system, whether large or small, will be easier to make and maintain if neighbors
and the community work together. The objectives are:
• To create a pond or ponds which are productive and healthy
• To make ponds with as much edge as possible. More edge = more food for fish = bigger
and healthier fish
• To produce a variety of products from the same area
AQUACULTURE SYSTEM NEEDS AQUACULTURE SYSTEM PRODUCTS
Construction materials, labour, water, water
plants, trees and plants, fish, prawns, eels,
fish food, oxygen in the water
Fish, prawns, eels, vegetables (water plants),
fertilizer, mulch, cool climate, pond edge
products (bamboo, trees, fruit)
Fishponds need a continual supply of water. Therefore, the ponds should be located near a
water source, like an irrigation channel, river, spring or house water. For river locations, be
careful not to choose a site which could flood during the wet season.
Gently sloped land will make it easier to drain and clean
the fishpond or to run water in and out of the pond.
This is very useful if you plan to have more than one
pond in one aquaculture system on your land. Flat land
is also good, but it requires more work for maintenance
and water supply. Steep sloped land is very difficult to
use and will require a lot of maintenance.
turning swampy land into fishponds
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plants and animals
provide food for fish, and
fishponds provide food
for plants and animals
For most areas, a little shade will be useful for smaller fishponds. Shade
reduces the waters temperature, fish won’t eat much in hot water and could
even die. Shade will also reduce water evaporating from the pond. Shade is
not so important for large ponds, because with larger ponds the shade won’t affect the water
temperature as much. Some shade can be provided by trees and water plants which cover the
ponds surface. Use trees that only give a little shade and can be cut back as needed, such as
moringa, leucaena, guava, mulberry and bamboo. For smaller ponds, a simple shade structure
made of bamboo and palm leaves will provide temporary shade until the trees grow tall.
Too much shade can also cause problems, because fishponds need some direct
sunlight for plant growth and to keep the system healthy. At least ½ days of
sunlight is good, morning sun is best. In mountain areas, where the air is much
cooler at night, the fishponds will need more sunlight to warm the water.
It is better to make many small ponds than only making one or two
large ponds. The ponds size should be a minimum of 3 m x 3 m or 5 m
x 2 m. With this size the water will stay cool. 5 m x 5 m (25 m
) till 10
m x 10 m (100 m
) is a good size for fishponds. But remember, larger
fishponds means a lot more digging. It is better to start with a smaller
pond, and if it works well, make more ponds. Smaller fishponds are
easier to manage, clean and harvest. Also, if a problem affects one
pond, it will only affect the number of fish in that pond. All the ponds
can be harvested at different times.
A pond should have a variety of depths to function well. A shelf around the edge and a deeper
section in the middle is ideal for ponds, or it could be deep at one end and shallow on the other
end. The shallow parts of a pond provide a place for water plants, which supply food for fish
and people, homes for small fish and warmer temperatures, which encourage plankton and
pond animal growth (which are also fish food) in these areas. Some types of fish, like gurami,
need shallow areas to breed. The shallow areas of ponds should be 30-50 cm deep and 50-100
Two shallow areas with different depths is even better. These shallow areas create edges in the
water (more edge = more food for fish = bigger and healthier fish), and are an essential part
of any aquaculture system.
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The deep areas of a pond should be around 1-2 meters deep. This will provide fish with a
cool place to avoid the hot sun. The deep areas will also give the fish a place to hide from
A fishpond can be made any shape you like. The more edge around fishponds will
provide more areas for growing water plants and fish food in the pond, and more
areas for growing plants and trees around the pond.
• Ponds in square and circle shapes will make digging faster, but they will
provide less edge. Use simple shapes for the deep part of the pond, then
make shapes with many edges for the shallow part of the pond
• When planning the shape of fishponds, always think of them as part of an
aquaculture system which can be integrated with vegetables, trees and other
The construction of an aquaculture pond is hard work. Working together, especially when
digging, will make the work much easier.
Work smart, not hard:
• Start digging in the middle where the deepest part will be. Gradually move outwards and
don’t dig too deep or too fast
• Wet the ground to make the soil
easier to dig
• The dug up soil can be placed
around the pond edge to
raise the height of the edge,
this will reduce the amount of
• Extra soil can also be used
to create an extra shelf or to
provide more plant production area
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Clay or Cement?
Making clay fishponds is easier and cheaper, especially for areas where the soil
contains a lot of clay. To find out if your soil contains clay which is good for making ponds,
a simple test can be done by wetting a handful of clay and rolling it into the shape of a snake
which is 1 cm thick. If the clay sticks together, it means that the clay is good to use for making
Cement can be used for smaller ponds and for where there is not good clay available
in the soil. Cement holds water much better than clay. Clay lining can also be used if there
is enough good quality clay around your area. The layer of clay or soil used for ponds should
be about 5-10 cm thick. Make sure the lining does not dry out during the dry season, because
this could cause cracking or leakage. If the pond does crack or leak, add another layer of fresh
clay or cement.
Clay Pond Techniques
Once the fishpond has been dug and shaped, layer it with clay to reduce water leakage. This
will help a lot, especially if there is limited water supply. Pack down the clay by stomping on it,
or use cows, buffalo and goats to walk over the pond until the clay had compacted.
Fresh cow and buffalo manure also helps to seal ponds. Lime
powder can also be used to help seal the pond and balance
the soils pH levels. Use 2-3 kg of lime powder for a pond
of 100 m
(10 m x 10 m).
Cement Pond Techniques
The amount in the cement mix used for layering ponds must be more than what is used for
making cement bricks, so that the cement is stronger. It is also important to use iron or wire
mesh as a frame to hold the cement together and prevent cracking.
A line of rocks around the top edge of the pond will strengthen the ponds edge and will also
look beautiful. Try to keep the cement moist for few days during the process of making the
pond, until the cement dries perfectly. If cracks do appear, add another layer of cement.
When the cement dries, paint it with vinegar, then fill the pond with water. Leave for 2 days,
then empty the water and repeat the process twice more. The last time you fill the pond with
water, it will be safe for fish to live in.
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The water that flows into the fishpond must be clean to
prevent the bottom of the fishpond from filling up with soil.
Water from rivers can contain a lot of soil, so it must be
filtered first. Too much soil can cause problems for natural
food production and this fishpond will need to be cleaned
more often. If water from springs or rivers are used:
• Line the water channels with rocks or cement. Plant
grasses or small plants along these channels to help stop erosion
• First run the water into a pond which is only used for growing water plants. This pond
will catch soil and filter the water, so that when the water flows into the fishponds it will
be much cleaner. Remove the soil which collects in the plant pond and use it to fertilize
• Dig a ‘soil trap’ in the trench before the fishpond. This soil trap will clean the water by
catching soil at the trenches base as the water flows through the trench. Make the hole
1 meter deep if possible. The soil that collects in the soil trap is fertile soil, and it can be
used to fertilize gardens
On sloped land, a drainage pipe can be added during construction of the pond. This drainage
pipe can be made of bamboo, plastic piping (paralon) or metal piping; whatever material is
available. Cover the end of the pipe which is in the water to prevent the pond water from
leaking. This pipe is used to drain the pond if needed. This method is much easier than
emptying the pond using buckets!
A plastic hose can also be used to drain ponds. Fill it with water, cover one end of the hose, put
the other end of the hose into the pond and the covered end outside the pond, but positioned
lower than the pond, then open the hose end. Water will suck out of the hose using gravity.
This method will only be successful on sloped land.
Water Overflow Points
running water from a
spring to the fishpond
An overflow point is where excess water will flow out of the pond. This point is needed to
be able to direct water to where you want it. It should be big enough to manage overflow
waters during the wet season or heavy rains. Make this point at a low point in the ponds wall.
If possible, layer this area with rocks or cement to prevent erosion. A large piece of bamboo
placed in the ponds wall will also help a lot.
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Attach a piece of wire at the end of the overflow point or on every
pipe used to prevent fish escaping from the pond. This will also help
to keep the water clean, which is important if the overflow water
runs into another pond. Try to run the overflow water to paddies,
swales or other water catchments so the overflow water, which is
filled with nutrients, is not wasted.
Fish are very sensitive to pesticides and herbicides in water. These chemicals can
make them sick or die. Don’t use pesticides or herbicides on lands above the pond
location, because they will flow down into the pond. It is important to address this
issue on a community level, so other farmers do not use the chemicals on their
lands above you, because this will affect your aquaculture system.
To create a healthy, sustainable system and have good fish production, all the different parts of
a pond system must be addressed. Plants, manure, bacteria, plankton, insects, frogs, leaves,
fruit, trees, other animals and humans all play important roles in creating a healthy environment
which can produce healthy pond products. Water in a healthy fishpond will be light green in
color. This means that there
is lots of plankton and other
food for fish. To achieve
light green colored water, a
fishpond must be prepared
and managed well.
Making a Fishpond
Preparing the Fishpond
plankton grows from
the decomposing materials
fish eat the plankton
add leaves, manure and soil
For new ponds made of clay, lime powder can be applied to the sides and bottom of the pond
before adding water. The lime will balance pH levels, especially acidic soils and waters, and later
on it will help keep the water clear. Lime powder will also help with potential pest and disease
problems. Usually, pH conditions are neutral to alkaline, and because of this water is clear. Also,
pest and disease problems are usually minimal at the beginning, so only small amounts of lime
are needed. Add about 2-3 kg of lime for every 100 m
(10 m x 10 m) of pond area. This is not
essential, but it will help a lot for new ponds. Fill the ponds with water, then leave for 3 days
before adding living creatures. Lime is not needed for ponds made of cement.
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A layer of manure and soil at the bottom of the pond will make the pond healthy. Fresh manure
is better to use than dry manure, because fresh manure contains more bacteria.
Use 30-50 kg of manure from cows, buffalo or horses
for every 100 m
pond, and 8-12 kg for pond of 25 m
Chicken and duck manure is much stronger, and only
6 kg per 100 m
or 1,5 kg per 25 m
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of pond area.
If you combine these different manures together, use
half of each type of manure. Spread the manure over
the whole pond bottom and sides. The manure will
encourage plankton growth, which is a natural source
of food for fish.
Water and soil from another, already productive pond is also a good starter for new ponds,
because the water and soil will add lots of plankton and bacteria. Add this soil together with
Before adding fish to a pond, add lots of leaves and plant materials
to encourage bacteria and plankton growth, and to provide food for
the fish. Legume trees are good to use. Use 40-50 kg of leaves and
branches, tied in bundles, for a pond of 100 m
. Place these materials
around the pond edges. After one week, the materials can be replaced
with new materials, continue to do this until the water turns green in
color. This is very important, especially for cement ponds.
Shade will keep fishponds cooler, but don’t let the sun become blocked out completely because
sunlight is still needed, especially morning light. Trees and plants will provide shade long term.
If there are no trees, you can provide some shade by making a simple shade structure from
bamboo, wood or leaves, or make a structure for growing vine plants, like pumpkin, luffa,
grapes and passion fruit.
Water Plants and Small Water Animals
Water plants will provide habitat for small fish, food for the fish and
their rotting leaves will help plankton and bacteria growth. Water
plants can also provide food for people. Grow many different
types of plants which provide different functions to keep the
aquaculture system healthy.
Some different types of plants which can be grown are:
• Plants that grow from the soil: Taro, arrowroot, reeds, etc
• Plants that grow from the soil and on top of the water: Kangkung, watercress, etc
• Plants that live on top of the water: Water lilies, water hyacinth, lotus, etc
Many of these plants function as water cleaners. These plants will remove excess nutrients and
help to remove any toxins. This will help to maintain a healthy pond environment. Small water
animals can also be added, like water snails, prawns and frogs. They will reproduce naturally
and will become an additional source food for some larger fish.
Providing Homes for Fish
Small fish sometimes need protection from
larger fish, because certain types of fish will
eat other types of fish which are smaller.
A place for fish to make their own nests
is also needed. All water creatures will be
healthier if they have a good habitat.
Piles of rocks, water plants, old tires or old drink cans tied together, will all provide space,
homes and habitats for fish. Tilapia needs shallow water to make their nests. A shelf or shallow
area, as already explained previously, will provide a nesting area for these fish.
Plants Around the Pond Edge
Plant areas around the pond edge immediately to hold the soil in place and prevent erosion.
Pond edges are very fertile, because they receive lots of water and nutrients.
Plants which can be grown along pond edges are:
• Water plants: Taro, arrowroot, kangkung and watercress will all provide food and habitat
for pond animals
• Grasses, to strengthen the pond edge
• Vegetables, small vegetable plots can be made around the pond edge
• Small fruit trees: Banana, citrus and papaya trees. Plant 1-2 meters from the pond edge.
These plants like lots of nutrients and will not provide too much shade
• Large fruit trees: Mulberry and guava trees are best. Choose
trees which can be cut back and will not provide too much
shade. Plant 2-3 meters from the pond edge, and don’t
plant too many
• Legumes: Moringa, leucaena, and acacia will provide
many functions including food for fish. These trees
can also be cut back as needed
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Add the Fish
There are many types of fish which can be grown, including: Carp, mujair, tilapia, catfish,
gurami, prawns and eels.
Fish Categories Based on Diet
Based on what fish eat, they can be divided into 3 categories:
1. Herbivores: Only eat plants, plankton, leaves and grains, for example carp
2. Carnivores: Only eat meat or animals, including insects, small pond animals and other
fish, for example eels and catfish
3. Omnivores: Eat everything, they eat plants and also eat meat, insects and small pond
creatures, for example tilapia, gurami, catfish, mujair and carp
There are many different types of catfish in the world, there are some that are carnivores and
others which are omnivores, but the most common type is omnivore. There are also different
types of carp, some which are herbivores and others which are omnivores.
A healthy aquaculture system can contain many different types of fish. The fish will naturally
create a balance between themselves. Different types of fish will feed on different layers in
the water and will maximise the use of food and space in the pond. These fish will also play
different roles in keeping the pond healthy.
The fish that feed at the top and middle of the pond, like tilapia fish, will eat most of the fish
food, mosquito larvae and other insects. The fish that feed at the bottom of the pond, like carp,
mujair and catfish, will eat food and plant materials that drop to the bottom of the pond and
the plankton which grows at the bottom of the pond. Larger ponds will provide enough space
to breed many different types of fish.
If you want to keep all three categories of fish, you must introduce them to the
pond in the right order:
First: Add herbivore fish
Second: Add omnivore fish when the herbivore fish are 3 months old or more
Third: Add carnivore fish 3 months later
Carnivore fish, like catfish, will eat other small fish so they must be added last. The omnivore
fish usually won’t eat the other small fish.
Once the fishpond is established, it will manage itself. However, some additional food and
general maintenance is still needed. Continuously observe the health of the fish and number
of each different type of fish.
The carnivore fish will control the number of small fish by eating them. This will help to prevent
overstocking the pond with fish. Some protection in the pond like rocks, water plants and old
drink cans, will provide the smaller fish with a place to hide so some of them will still survive.
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Fish Stocking Rates
3 fish per 1 m
is good for most fishponds. For 100 m
of pond, there should be about 300 fish.
This number is good for healthy fishponds. The number of fish can be increased to 5 fish per
of pond if extra food is added and the pond is managed well.
The following example of stocking rates can be used as a general guide:
About 30% (90) : Tilapia, gurami
About 50% (150) : Carp, mujair
About 20% (60) : Catfish
Raising eels together with fish can create problems, especially in smaller ponds. The eels will
reduce the number of other fish. Sometimes they will naturally enter fishponds from rivers or
Always try to keep their numbers low, and only introduce them if you are confident you can
manage them well. However, it is still better to raise eels separately.
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Types of Fish
Carp are common in many areas, they are tough and usually
• Food: Carp are usually herbivores, which only eat vegetation and
plankton. They will feed at the bottom of the pond. Carp food can be provided by adding
animal manure, rice husks, leaves, fruits and other rotted natural materials
• Growth: Carp can grow up a weight of ½ kg in 6 months in good conditions and with
enough food. They can grow to 2 kg or more if desired, but the meat is tastier when the
carp are still young
• Breeding: Carp will lay eggs after 8-12 months. The female carp lay eggs all year long
and will place the eggs around pond vegetation. The eggs will hatch in 2-6 days, and the
baby fish will start eating when they are 2 days old
• Stocking rates: In a fishpond of 100 m
(10 m x 10 m) you can stock around 150-300
fish. In a fishpond of 25 m
(5 m x 5 m) you can stock around 40-75 fish (around 2-3 fish
per 1 m
). The number of fish depends on the amount of food supply in the pond. If too
many fish are kept in a pond, they will grow slowly and not reach their full size, and will be
more likely to become sick
Tilapia is a very important fish because they are easy to feed and
they will eat mosquito larvae that breed in fishponds.
• Food: Tilapia eat plankton, water plants and insects. They will grow well in natural,
healthy fishponds and all the food they need is already provided. With extra feed, like rice
bran, crushed corn, cassava and so on, they will grow much faster and will breed more
• Growth: This fish can grow to a weight of 200 grams in 6 months with good food supply
• Breeding: Tilapia reach sexual maturity after 6 months and they can breed 6-8 times in
one year. They will breed naturally in healthy fishponds, in shallow parts or shelves of the
pond. Remove the baby fish as soon as they come to the ponds surface and keep them
separate by using nets or cages. This will make it easier to sell young fish, and reduce
• Stocking rates: The ideal rate is 3 fish per 1 m
of pond. Because this fish breeds so
often, overstocking problems can occur. Too many fish will cause the fish to grow smaller.
This problem can be prevented by moving the baby fish as soon as they come to the
ponds surface or by adding some catfish to the pond when the talipia are starting to
breed. The catfish will feed on the small talipia and keep their numbers low
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Catfish taste good and are disease resistant.
• Food: The type of catfish most commonly raised are omnivore.
Almost all food needed for this type of fish is naturally available in healthy ponds. Extra
feed can be added, such as meat or food scraps
• Growth: Catfish can be eaten between the age of 6-18 months
• Breeding: Catfish carry their eggs in their mouth until the eggs hatch. They will produce
many young if their eggs hatch. However, catfish are difficult to breed so to increase their
numbers you can collect more fish from rivers or paddies
• Stocking rates: These fish can be kept at a rate of 1-2 fish per 1 m
of pond. If you want
to stock more than this number, extra feed must be provided
Gurami prefer ponds with lots of water plants. Therefore, they are
good for raising with water vegetables or rice production.
• Food: Gurami are omnivores and will eat water plants, insects, plankton and fruit
• Growth: They can grow to a weight of 80-120 grams in 6 months
• Breeding: This fish will breed naturally, but the survival rate of the baby fish is very low
• Stocking rates: The stocking rates for this fish is around 5-10 fish per 1 m
of pond, if
enough food is available
Mujair have similar behavior traits as carp.
• Food: Use same food as for carp
• Growth: They will grow to a good eating size in 4-6 months
• Breeding: Mujair fish breed easily, and can breed 2-3 times a year
• Stocking rates: Mujair are smaller than carp so the stocking rates can be slightly higher,
about 2-4 fish per 1 m
of pond, or 200-400 fish per 100 m
In many areas, freshwater prawns grow naturally in rivers and ponds.
They are very difficult to raise from eggs or young. Therefore, you can catch them in rivers
and transfer the smaller prawns to ponds. The best time is when the young prawns have shed
their first skin and have just started growing their adult skin. Before this time, they need special
attention, different water temperatures and specific foods. The benefit of growing prawns in
a pond is that they will grow much larger than they do in the wild. The prawns can survive in
smaller sized ponds. Prawns like ponds with lots of fresh water or if possible running water.
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Eels live in rivers and paddy areas. They can cause problems with
stocks of other fish because eels like to eat small fish. However, if eels
are introduced in small numbers when the fish are already large enough,
they can be combined. Only experienced fish farmers should experiment. Because eels are
carnivores, their feed can be very expensive. The following example is one method for raising
eels. This method works well for ponds of 15 m
(3 m x 5 m). First, add a layer of mud an
manure to the bottom of the pond. Then, add a layer of cut banana stems, add another layer
of leaves and grass. Repeat this process until the pond is full of these materials. Fill the pond
with water, and wait until the materials become rotten, usually around 1-2 months. After this,
the eels can be introduced into the pond, use 100-150 eels.
The rotting materials will provide food and habitat for insects and small water animals, which
will then become food for the eels. Extra food can also be added to increase eel production,
this could be animal intestines, blood, bones, skin, kitchen scraps, frogs, dead rats, termites
and so on.
house for young fish
Some benefits of breeding fish:
• Provide continuous supply of young fish
• Improve production and quality
• Produce young fish to sell
Proper breeding techniques for freshwater fish is very
technical and often difficult. Some types of fish, like
tilapia, will breed naturally, but other types of fish need
special techniques, conditions and specific tools. The
methods used for fish breeding are too long to include in
this manual. However, for those who plan to breed fish or
are interested, you should look for more information.
To hold young fish, make a basket or container of bamboo to use inside the pond.
Water Plant Production
There are many different types of water plants which can be grown for food or to sell. Taro,
kangkung, watercress, arrowroot and lotus are some water plants which are commonly grown.
The leaves, roots and young seeds of lotus plants can be eaten and taste good. Plant growth
will be faster if you add a small amount of manure to the pond. All water plants need fresh
water added to the pond often to be able to grow well. Fish and water plants that produce food
can easily be grown together. The plants and fish will help each other because the fish manure
will become plant food and the plants will provide rotten leaves and habitat for the fish.
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All water plants should be harvested regularly and controlled so they do not grow
over the entire pond surface. Kangkung and watercress grow very quickly, which
can cause problems for fish because they will take too much sunlight and oxygen.
The water plants should at the very most cover ¼ of the pond surface. Plants
which cannot be eaten or sold can be used as mulch or compost.
Herbivore and omnivore fish include carp, tilapia, gurami, mujair and catfish.
To provide continuous food supply for fish and to keep the pond environment healthy, continue
to add manure and leaves to the pond. One week after fish have been introduced into the
pond, begin adding manure. Use 30-40 kg of manure per 100 m
of pond every week, or 8-10
kg per 25 m
. For old fish ponds that already are light green in color, the amount of manure
can be reduced to 20 kg per 100 m
of pond every week. The amount of manure used depends
on the color of the pond water.
The color of pond water is very important because it shows how much fish food is available in
the pond. A good way to test this is by placing your hand 10-20 cm into the water. If you can
still see your hand, it means the water is too clear.
• If the water is too clear, the amount of manure added should be increased until the water
becomes light green in color
• If the water is light green in color, the amount of manure added can stay the same
• If the water is too dark, the amount of manure added should be reduced until the water
becomes light green again
Another sign of too much fertilizer is if the fish are always at the
waters surface until late afternoon and are acting strange. Also,
if the fish do not move when scared. If this happens, stop adding
manure and add more water to the pond. Sometimes, add a small
amount of leaves and rotten fruit. If there are water plants growing,
you do not need to add more leaves.
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 283
Other factors which can affect the color of pond water are:
• Too much sunlight can make the water color too dark
• Too much shade can make the water color too clear
• Not enough fresh water can make the water color too dark
Using the right amount of manure and leaves will keep your pond healthy. A healthy pond will
provide enough food for the fish to grow well and healthy. When the pond is harvested, the
manure can be reused as fertilizer for crops. Pond systems made of cement or large scale fish
production systems are the most likely to require extra feed for fish.
Extra feed will help the fish to grow faster and allow you to increase the number of fish in a
pond. To achieve maximum benefits, the fish food should contain protein, fat, carbohydrates,
energy, minerals and vitamins. Feed the fish twice a day, at the same time each day. Increase
the amount of feed given as the fish grow larger. A good amount of fish food will be all eaten in
10 minutes. If the food is eaten in less time, add a little more. If more than approximately 10%
is not eaten, reduce the amount. Too much feed will cause problems by reducing the amount
of oxygen in the pond and by building up at the bottom of the pond.
Extra Feed for Omnivore & Herbivore Fish
Types of natural feed that we can produce ourselves include:
• Grains, contain protein, carbohydrates and fat, for example rice bran,
broken rice, crushed corn, millet
• Legumes, their leaves and seeds contain lots of protein and minerals, for
example beans, moringa, peanuts. Legume seeds should be cooked first,
before feeding to fish
• Fruits and leaves, contain a range of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates and
protein in small amounts
• Roots, contain carbohydrates and energy, for example cassava, taro, sweet
potatoes, potatoes. Root vegetables should be cooked first, before feeding
to fish, and only a small amount is needed
• Meat and animal remains, contain protein, minerals, vitamins and more, for
example animal intestines, blood, bones, feathers, kitchen scraps, frogs,
mice, termites. All meat, except for dead mice, frogs or termites, should be
cooked first to reduce chances of spreading disease and worms
• Oil seeds, contain protein, oil and low amounts of carbohydrates, for
example soybeans, sunflower, kapok seeds, candlenut, coconut and peanuts
• Kitchen scraps, which contain all
of the nutrients above, are a great
source of fish food
Carp, tilapia, mujair and gurami only
require a small amount of meat or
none at all. Catfish will grow better if
you add some meat to their food.
284 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Extra Feed for Carnivore Fish
Eels are carnivores, catfish are omnivores, but they eat a lot more meat than other types of
omnivore fish. They will eat small fish, frogs, worms, insects, prawns, snails and other water
animals. Meat and other animal remains, prepared in the same way as for omnivore fish, are
good for these types of carnivore fish.
Processed Feed for All Types of Fish
What is meant by processed feed is feed which can be bought in stores,
which is made in factories. Almost all ponds do not need processed
feed, but for some situations processed feed is a good way of
making sure that fish are getting enough nutrients.
Some situations like this could be:
• Large scale fishpond production
• Cooperations of fish farmers, who can make the feed in
groups and then divide it between the group members
Processed feed takes time and money to make, so it should be
produced in large scale quantities. If you are interested in producing
processed feed, you can learn more details from other information
sources and books.
Fish Diseases and Pests
Diseases which are most commonly experienced by fish are parasites
and worms. Some symptoms of these are:
• Fish trying to scratch their own bodies on rocks and are moving slowly
• The fish have swollen, fat bodies (They are actually very thin, but their
stomachs are filled with worms)
One way of handling these problems is by using salt, The salt will also help to clean fish gills
and treat bacterial ulcers. If only a few fish are diseased, treat them using salt and water in
buckets. Always use water from the fishpond and kitchen salt. Method:
1. Dissolve the salt in water, use 25 g of salt per liter of water for a 30 second treatment, or
10 g of salt per liter of water for 30-60 minutes of treatment
2. Stir the water to add oxygen
3. Place the fish into the bucket. Observe the fish carefully, if they show any signs of stress,
move them immediately to fresh water
4. Repeat this method 2 times in a row, afterwards the fish can be returned to the pond
This can be used as a quarantine method of killing diseases before adding new fish to a pond.
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 285
If many fish are diseased, then you can treat the whole pond. Use 1.5 kg of salt per 1 m
pond water, for example a pond of 10 m x 10 m (if the pond is 1 m deep, it has 100 m
water, if the pond is 2 m deep, it has 150 m
of pond water), uses 150 kg of salt for 100 m
225 kg of salt for 150 m
. Always dissolve the salt before adding it to the pond. After one day,
continue to add fresh water as usual. Observe for signs of stress in water plants, if they seem
stressed, add more fresh water. Formalin can also be used. Add 2 ml of formalin to 10 liters of
water. Put the diseased fish into this solution and leave them for 15 minutes, after this return
them to the fishpond.
To prevent worm disease problems, add some lime powder to the empty pond as the pond is
being built, this will help a lot. Adding lots of fresh water to fishpond will also help to prevent
all types of disease. After any disease treatments, change the pond water if possible to prevent
the same disease from spreading again. Also, try to add more oxygen to the fishpond.
The main fish pests are birds and humans. Snakes and crabs can sometimes cause small
problems. These pests will always be around the pond. By killing off any of theses pests, you
will damage part of a healthy ecosystem, because these pests have important roles in the
overall ecosystem of the garden, for example birds eat many insect pests which damage crops.
The best way to manage pest problems in the pond is by prevention and always thinking of
different ways to minimize potential losses and damage to the ecosystem.
Ways to prevent bird pest problems:
• Provide a place in the water where fish will be protected,
for example rocks, water plants, old tyres and tin cans
• Cover the pond surface with palm leaves to stop birds
from diving into the pond
• Provide a deep area in the pond, so fish can escape there
Ways to prevent attacks from human pests is only by reducing jealousy and
increasing working together within groups and communities.
Oxygen is essential for a healthy pond and it is in every drop of water.
Oxygen is needed by all the living creatures in the pond. There is less
oxygen in water which is warm and still. A lack of oxygen could be
• Overstocking, too many fish • A lack of fresh water
• Giving too much feed • Adding too much manure
• A lack of sunlight, which is caused by too much shade and water plants
Signs of too little oxygen could be the fish are at the water surface from early in the morning
and are always opening and closing their mouths, and they do not respond to surprise.
286 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Oxygen can be replaced and increased by:
• Flowing water into the pond. If there is a continual supply of water, than only a small
amount of water needs to be run into the pond
• Adding fresh water regularly, every few days, especially for small ponds
• Increasing the pond depth. A deep pond will stay cooler than a shallow pond. Cool water
holds more oxygen than warm water
• Moving the water. Moving water will return oxygen to the water. Move the water as often
as possible, by using the wind, water pumps, windmills or by simply stirring the water
Cleaning the Pond
The best time to clean the pond is after harvesting fish. If there are
fish still being kept in the pond, move the fish to a container and
return them to the pond after it has been cleaned. Leave a very thin
layer of soil or manure at the bottom of the pond so good bacteria
stays there. Don’t forget to use the pond bottom soil to fertilize your
Pollution can cause big problems for fishponds. Pollution can come from
chemicals, oil, petrol and even soap water. Water from the kitchen and
washing water contains detergents, and this water cannot be run directly
into fishponds. This water must be cleaned first by running it into a
separate pond used to filter the water, after this process it can be run into
the fishpond. Grow water plants, like reeds, lotus and water hyacinth, in
the water filter pond. Don’t use plants which will be eaten. These plants,
besides functioning to filter the water, can also be used for mulch. (For more
information about how to clean water, see Module 3 – Houses, Water and
Waste Management). Using pesticides and herbicides is also dangerous. To
reduce potential pollution problems, don’t use pesticides and herbicides on
land above the pond area, because they flow down into the pond. Water
pollution could come from sources far away, especially if you are using water
from rivers. Work together with you community to reduce using chemical
products which could pollute irrigation water. Working together will benefit
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 287
Over feeding can cause problems to do with water quality and the amount of oxygen available
in the water. Water piling up at the bottom of the pond will also make the pond more shallow
quickly. If these problems do occur, the quickest solution is to change the pond water.
Mosquitoes can carry many dangerous diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Mosquitoes
lay their eggs in ponds, and the mosquito larvae will stay there until they are ready to fly.
Some types of fish, like tilapia, will eat mosquito eggs and larvae, frogs will also help with this.
Neem leaves can be added to the fishpond to stop mosquito problems. Add neem leaves to the
pond regularly, or spray a liquid solution of 3-4 ml neem oil and 1 liter of water over the pond
surface. Neem will stop mosquitoes from breeding without harming the fish. Be careful using
other types of natural pesticides, because they could be harmful to fish.
Other Types of Fishponds
Wet Season Fishponds
If during the dry season there is limited water supply or no water at all, a pond can be made for
use only during the wet season. Trenches, swales and good irrigation can be used to increase
water supply. Soil traps to filter water can be made if swales or trenches are used, or if the
water comes from rivers. The amount of oxygen in the water will be reduced if the water supply
is not regular.
• To grow fish to their maximal size, raise them in a separate container or water
tank for 1-2 months, then move them into the pond at the beginning of the
• During the dry season, when the pond is not being used, the bottom of the
pond can be used for growing vegetables
• If the pond is not used for growing vegetables, cover it with a temporary
shade structure to prevent cracking (including ponds made of cement)
For areas close to the sea, a saltwater fishpond can be made. The pond is made by simply
digging a hole near the sea, which will then naturally fill with saltwater. The location of the
pond should not be much higher than sea level, because if it is too high it will be difficult to
reach the water. The best areas are where water plants are already growing (swampy areas).
By creating a fishpond, you will create a productive area on unproductive land which is not
being used for anything. However, be careful not to change the natural environment too much
or damage the surrounding area, because these areas are very important for keeping the coast
and sea healthy. Create an area as natural as possible by using local plants. The most common
fish raised in saltwater ponds is the milkfish.
288 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Constructing and maintaining saltwater fishponds:
• Use the same guidelines for the pond size and shape as
used for making fresh water ponds
• The pond water level will rise and fall as the seawater
rises and falls, so the pond must be made deep enough
to still contain enough water during very low tides
• Rocks and plants around the pond edges are important
to protect the pond and prevent erosion, especially if the
soil contains a lot of sand
• The most common pests in coastal areas are birds, like
seagulls, so some form of protection against birds must
• Some shade is essential to keep the pond water cool. Water plants will help, and they will
also provide food for fish
• Special consideration must be given in areas where crocodiles may come. Strong fences
must be built around the fishpond to protect the fish (and you!) from crocodile attacks
Integrating Fish with Other Systems
There are many systems which can be integrated with fish, like chickens, pigs, ducks, vegetables,
paddies and more. Following are some examples of techniques which can be used, but you can
use these techniques with any of your own ideas that you think will work well.
Fish with Chickens
The number of chickens kept will depend on the size of
the fishpond and the number of fish, for example:
• A pond of 25 m
(5 m x 5 m) : 5 chickens
• A pond of 100 m
(10 m x 10 m) : 5-10 chickens
• A pond of 1000 m
(20 m x 50 m) : 30-50 chickens
The chicken coop can be built over the fishpond, this will provide many benefits, the chicken
coop will provide shade and when it is cleaned out, left over chicken feed will fall into the
fishpond and become fish feed. Plan where the chicken coop will go before building the pond,
especially if the pond will be made of cement. The chicken coop should provide protection
against wind and rain, but still have good ventilation, and the floor of the chicken coop should
be strong enough to hold the weight of a person when cleaning the chicken coop.
Leave the chickens in their coop until midday so that they will lay eggs inside the coop. After,
let the chickens out to search for food on their own. Provide some feed for the chickens during
afternoon to attract them back into their coop. If the chickens are kept in the coop all day,
they should be fed twice a day, chicken feed can be grains, corn, beans, some fresh leaves and
weeds. Don’t forget to provide fresh water for the chickens to drink. Chicken manure which falls
into the fishpond will provide the fish with additional nutrients. However, fresh water must be
added once a week to keep the pond water fresh. The pond should be cleaned out completely
every one or two years.
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 289
Fish with Pigs
This system is similar to the fish and chicken
system. Use 2-3 pigs for a pond of 100 m
x 10 m) or larger. The pig pen can be used for
raising young pigs. The piglets can be raised in
the pen from 2-4 months, then change them for
new piglets. The pigs can be let out of the pen,
but a fence will be needed to manage them.
The pig pen should be made above the irrigation water that flows into the pond, not directly
above the pond. In this way the amount of fertilizer and feed that enters the pond can be
regulated. If there is too much manure and feed from the pig pen, it can be diverted or used
as compost material. In China, the pig manure and left over feed is composted first and then
added to the fishpond.
Fish and Rice Paddy Systems (Mina Padi)
There are some types of fish, like catfish and eels, which naturally live in paddies. However,
other types fish, like tilapia, gurami and carp can also be raised in paddies, so long as there
is enough water and the paddies are free of pesticides. If the paddies used are close to
the house, this is much better because they will be easier to manage. Small fish should be
raised in separate ponds and added to the paddies after the rice is already growing. This will
prevent the fish from eating the young rice plants.
A separate, deeper pond can be made connected
to the rice paddies. When harvest time is close, the
water will dry up and become warmer, and the fish
will then naturally escape to this separate pond. This
pond should be made in area lower than the paddies.
This system can be managed the same as a normal
fishpond. Water flow and fish population can be
controlled by using trenches and doors.
Some benefits of using this system:
• There will be two different products from the rice paddies, fish and rice
• Some fish, like tilapia and gurami, will eat mosquito larvae and reduce mosquito problems
in the paddies, they will also feed on insect pests which damage rice crops
• Fish manure will fertilize the rice paddies
• Rotten vegetation from the rice crops will become food for fish
Small ponds for young fish can be made next to the irrigation trenches which flow into the rice paddies.
If you use pesticides and herbicides you will kill the fish. Even some natural pesticides,
like tuha and tobacco, are too strong and dangerous (tuha is actually used as a
fish poison). Use Integrated Pest Management (ITP) techniques for managing rice
crops and be careful with natural pesticides. (For more information about ITP, see
Module 9 – Integrated Pest Management).
290 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Fish with Ducks
Integrating fish and duck production requires a large pond
and careful maintenance. However, there are some simple
integration methods that will still provide benefits. Make a
small separate pond for ducks, but higher than the fishpond.
Water that flows from the duck pond into the fishpond contains
lots of duck manure, which will provide food for fish.
The ducks must be kept away from the fishpond, because
they can damage the pond edges and eat small fish and
water plants. To prevent this from happening:
• Build a low fence around the duck pond and duck area, or around the fishpond
• For small fishpond, you can make a lattice cover out of bamboo. Make sure enough light
can still pass through. This cover will also protect the fish from other birds
The ducks will need a house, food and fresh water, just like chickens. They can be left out
during the day and returned to the house at sunset to eat and sleep.
Growing Vegetables During the Dry Season
Clay fishponds can be used for growing vegetables
during the dry season, when the fishpond is not
being used for fish production.
The soil at the bottom of fishponds is very
nutrient rich because of the manure and
leaves added to the fishpond during fish
production. The manure and leaves will
create mud. Plant fast growing vegetables
that can be harvested in one season.
Be careful not to damage or dig through the bottom of the pond or the clay layer beneath the mud,
this will create leakage in the pond. Grow vegetables that do not need any pesticides, because
pesticides will damage the pond ecosystem when the pond is again used for fish production.
Fish with Swales
Swales catch and store rain water. During heavy
rainfalls, water will flow from one swale to the
next, and it can be directed into fishponds. Swales
can also be used to direct overflow water from
fishponds. There are also other types of water
catchments that can be used for this same purpose,
like compost pits and terraces.
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 2 9 1
Chinampa is a term for a water trench system from Mexico. This
system can be used where there is a good source of water and
where the soil is able to hold water. Clay soils are the best soils
for this system. If there is a continual water source, chinampas
can be used all year round.
Chinampas can be used both on sloped lands and on flat lands. Chinampas can be used to
grow fish and water plants. The land around a chinampa will become very productive and can
be used to grow vegetables, fruits, bamboo and more.
Sloped Land Chinampas
Chinampas can be used to grow fish and water vegetables on land which is too steep for large
fishponds. However, on land with very steep slopes it will be very difficult to build and manage
a chinampa system. The best land to use is land which is sloped but not steep. On sloped
land, chinampas are made similar to swales with trenches dug on contour, but the trenches for
chinampas are wider and deeper than the ones used for swale systems.
The trenches should be 1-2 meters wide and 1-2 meter deep in the middle of the trench. The size
depends on the slope of the land (smaller chinampas for steeper sloped land), the amount of land
and what you plan to grow. Fish need wider and deeper chinampas than water vegetables.
Small plots can be made for planting
vegetables. The trenches are closer
together as well, about 3-4 meter
between each trench.
a sloped land chinampa
Water will flow from trench to trench through pipes or simple trenches lined with
rock. The soil between trenches will stay moist and is ideal for growing vegetables
and fruit trees. Vine plants can be grown over the trenches to provide some shade.
Flat Land Chinampas
Chinampas on flat land can be made larger than chinampas on sloped land. However, make the
size suitable for your needs. Chinampas are very good for changing flat land that is continually
wet, like swamps, into highly productive land. Water runs through the trenches, and so kangkung
can be grown there.
a flat land
On flat lands, chinampas do not need to
be on contour (because there is no land
contour, the land is flat) and pipes are
not needed to direct overflow water.
The trenches can all be connected or
overflow trenches can be used.
292 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Drying and Storing Fish
During harvest time, there will be large quantities of fish, too much fish to finish by eating and
selling. To reduce wasting fish, it is important to know ways of preserving and storing fish for
longer periods of time.
Using a solar drier is a good and inexpensive way
to dry fish, and it will protect the fish from insects
and animals. (Fore more information about how
to use solar driers, see Module 12 – Appropriate
Technology). Store the dry fish in a cool, dry and
The best aquaculture system that you can create is one that suits your own
Every aquaculture system will be different because the land is different, the people are different
and their needs are different. Use the techniques and ideas that you like and develop them with
your own ideas.
Mo d u l e 1 1 : A q u a c u l t u r e 293
N o t e s . . .
294 Pe r m a c u l t u r e , S o l u t i o n s f o r S u s t a i n a b l e l i f e s t y l e s
Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Kawal Kenaikan Harga Barang Ekoran Kenaikan Gaji Penjawat Awam
October 8th, 2011 nurizspace
Oleh itu kerajaan diminta mengalbil langkah mengawal peningkatan harga barang2 yang mungkin berlaku ekoran pengumuman kenaikan gaji kakitangan awam dan pemberian bonus.
Petikan Berita dari Bernama:
Setiausaha Agung Kongres Kesatuan Pekerja-pekerja dalam Perkhidmatan Awam (Cuepacs) Lok Yim Pheng berkata jika perkara itu tidak dikawal, matlamat kerajaan untuk mengurangkan beban yang ditanggung penjawat awam tidak tercapai.
“Dengan kenaikan gaji ini, saya amat berharap kerajaan memberi penekanan kepada pengawalan harga barang keperluan harian,”
“Ini memberi peluang kepada penjawat awam untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan di samping mengekalkan prestasi kerja mereka,”
Mulai 2012, kerajaan dengan kerjasama institusi pengajian tinggi awam (IPTA) akan menawarkan 5,000 peluang pengajian peringkat ijazah sarjana dan 500 doktor falsafah (PhD) kepada penjawat awam yang layak termasuk guru dengan peruntukan RM120 juta.
Kerajaan juga akan memperkenalkan Sistem Saraan Baru Perkhidmatan Awam (SBPA) menggantikan Sistem Saraan Malaysia (SSM) dengan matlamat mentransformasikan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia supaya menjadi organisasi yang lebih dinamik, responsif dan berorientasikan prestasi.
Najib berkata SBPA memperkenalkan prinsip perubahan radikal dalam pengambilan dan pengisian jawatan serta pembangunan kerjaya dengan teras pengekalan atau penamatan perkhidmatan penjawat awam berasaskan prestasi kerja.
Sementara itu, Lok yang juga Setiausaha Agung Kesatuan Perkhidmatan Perguruan Kebangsaan meminta kerajaan menimbang pemansuhan kutipan yuran persatuan ibu bapa dan guru (PIBG) kepada mereka yang berpendapatan rendah.
“Saya cadangkan agar kerajaan memansuhkan kutipan yuran PIBG kepada keluarga yang berpendapatan kurang daripada RM3,000. Ini dapat mengurangkan beban keluarga yang masih dalam kategori pendapatan rendah,”
Read more: http://nurizspace.com/2011/10/kawal-kenaikan-harga-barang-ekoran-kenaikan-gaji-penjawat-awam.html#ixzz1c04htI35
KK Times Square
|KK TIMES SQUARE is a 12 Blocks of 5 to 8 Storey Shop cum Offices along Coastal Highway of Kota Kinabalu City.|
15-acre integrated shopping, leisure, entertainment and hospitality hub.
Built along with the Mall are 2 Hotel Blocks and 2 Serviced Apartment Blocks
Over 3.4 million square feet of gross floor area
4 Levels of retail, F&B, entertainment and leisure outlets (all for lease only)
More than 200 tenants (including anchor tenants) with a balanced Trade Mix
Over 3,000 car parks
| ASIA CITY | CENTRAL POINT | CITY MALL | HARBOUR CITY | KARAMUNSING CAPITAL | KK PLAZA | TIME SQUARE | MEGA LONG | STAR CITY | SURIA SABAH | WARISAN SQUARE | WAWASAN PLAZA | WISMA MERDEKA |
URL : http://www.suriasabah.com.my
URL : http://www.suriasabah.com.my
Updated on 4 Feb 2011 FRI 1:21PM
|4||KK Times Square|
|7||Centre Point Sabah|
|17||Tanjung Aru Plaza|
|FIRST FLOORBATA |
PADINI CONCEPT STORE
SAMANTHA BOUTIQUE SECRET RECIPE
THE MOD HOUSE
TONG'S ATTITUDE WEAR
|THIRD FLOOR100 YEN SHOP |
EU YAN SANG
GENESIS THERAPY CENTRE
GNC LIVE WELL
LE SAFRAN FRENCH CAFE
MARS GAMES & TOYS STATIONARY
CYC MEGA KIDDIE WORLD
NATURAL GREEN HOUSE
PICTURES PHOTO PROCESSING & CAMERA CENTER
SURIA FOOD COURT
SURIA WEIGHT LOSS CENTRE
|SECOND FLOOR52ND STREET HAIR SALOON & ACADEMY |
AC BEAUTY LANE
ENOVEAL BEAUTY & BRIDAL WHOLESALE CITY
HARMONIC AV CENTRE (BOSE)
HKV ELECTRICAL & AV CENTER
TIMES BOOK STORE
|GROUND FLOORCARLO RINO |
CRABTREE & EVELYN
H20 (SEA-DERIVED SKINCARE)
PADINI CONCEPT STORE
SELECTI'VE by SASA
|LOWER GROUND FLOOR3 DOTS |
BIG APPLE DONUTS & COFFEE
COLUMBIA ADVENTURE GEAR
HUSH PUPPIES SHOES
KEDAI FONG SANG YICK
KENNY ROGERS ROASTERS
NASI LEMAK ANTARABANGSA
THE CHICKEN RICE SHOP
TONG'S TRAVELLER GEAR
|Yick Nam Lion Dance Team performing in Suria Sabah Shopping Mall on the 2nd Day of Chinese New Year 2011|
|Acrobatic performance at Suria Sabah in celebration of Chinese New Year 2011 Professional acrobatic group from Xi'an of China|
Suria Sabah is located beside Wisma Merdeka and Wisma Sabah and before Jesselton Point. This RM500 million mall sits on an 11-acre site, includes a 120-room 4-star hotel.
The location is located in the middle of Kota Kinabalu city with fantastic sea view. Suria Sabah face the magnificent South China Sea with a 2km long waterfront.
This shopping mall was completed in July 2009.
| || |
Suria Sabah shopping mall.
Showroom at Site / Site Office :
Jalan Tun Fuad Stephen,
88000 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
(Opposite Standard Chartered Bank, entrance facing Wisma Sabah)
Developer of the shopping mall : Makamewah Sdn Bhd.
Chairman cum Managing Director of the mall : Humphrey Tan Koon Yee.
Suria Sabah is a shopping paradise with 70 per cent of the retail space allocated for fashion and consumer durables, while the balance is for food and beverage as well as entertainment.
The 700,000 sq. ft building comes with 2,100 parking bays spread over four floors. 850,000 square feet of net retail space.
Suria Sabah is attached with a 5-star hotel. The mall start with basement, ground floor, 1st, 2nd and 3rd floor. 4th and 5th served as car park area. This is a high class shopping mall like 1-Borneo. It will be the second best shopping mall in KK.
Suria Sabah is second part of Suria Company's project to turn Kota Kinabalu seaside into tourist waterfront. The first part is the completed Jesselton Point.
Suriah Sabah is a modern development in the older part of Kota Kinabalu city centre. As a result of this catalyst for revival/redevelopment, the surround old buildings will also be upgraded. Such building as the adjacent Gaya Centre which has a plan to be converted into a hotel.
Suria Sabah is along Jesselton Point jetty, the jetty to board boats to Tunku Abdul Rahman Parks. Suria Sabah is across the road from Tong Hing Supermarket (the first supermarket of Sabah ). Suria Sabah is also close by to Wisma Merdeka. Merdeka was once the most popular mall in Kota Kinabalu 20 years ago. 10 minutes walk from Suria is the Sunday Street Fair at Gaya Street.
Within walking distance from hotels such as Hyatt International, or the numerous budget hotels and backpackers lodges along Gaya Street.
Place to eat at lower ground floor.
Japanese-style shabu-shabu restaurant,
Kenny Roger’s Roaster,
Pizza Hut and
Suria Sabah project include turning Kota Kinabaly seaside into a long waterfront.
Suria Sabah is linked to a world-class 2km long waterfront.
see also Suria KLCC
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INDEX : Kota Kinabalu February 22, 2011 03:04:43 PM